这项新研究在虚拟阿尔茨海默氏症协会国际会议AAIC 2020上发表。以下是会议中出现的一些研究。

—————————————————————-


接种流感疫苗和减少阿尔茨海默病发病率

由于缺乏有效的治疗方法,预防仍然是对抗阿尔茨海默病(AD)的一种有价值的方法,研究人员试图从统计上测试流感疫苗和AD之间的关系,希望找到一种预防AD的候选方法。使用ICD-9编码提示AD诊断的患者的EHR数据集,并排除年龄小于60岁的患者,研究小组评估了接种疫苗和未接种疫苗的患者。为了分析疫苗接种频率的影响,他们将疫苗接种次数除以从首次疫苗接种时间戳到AD发病或观察结束的时间长度。接种流感疫苗明显减少广告研究人群的患病率(优势比[或],0.8309),流感疫苗的频率有显著影响抑制AD发病(或0.8736),并比较分析表明,在早期接受流感疫苗导致小广告风险相比,接受疫苗在一个年长的年龄,先用1年增加疫苗接种年龄增加危险比为1.0924。该研究的作者写道:“这一结果提供了证据,表明流感疫苗接种可能是[AD]危险因素的流行病学研究中的一个混淆因素。”

—————————————————————-

磷酸盐Tau217作为广告的生物标志物

In order to evaluate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau phosphorylated at threonine 217 (p-tau217) or plasms p-tau217 are even better biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) than p-tau181, study investigators compared CSF p-tau217 and CSF p-tau81 among a cohort of nearly 200 and evaluated plasma p-tau217 and plasma p-tau181 in three cohorts with 1,438 participants. CSF p-tau217 had stronger correlations with the tau-PET tracer, and more accurately identified individuals with abnormal tau-PET scans than CSF P-tau181. CSF P-tau217 correlated better than p-tau181 with CSF and PET measures of neocortical amyloid-β burden and more accurately distinguished AD dementia from non-AD neurodegenerative disorders. Antemortem plasma P-tau217 differentiated individuals with intermediate-to-high likelihood of AD according to neuropathology from those without AD and performed significantly better than plasma P-tau181. Plasma P-tau217 also differentiated clinical AD dementia from non-AD neurodegenerative diseases significantly better than plasma P-tau181, plasma neurofilament light, and established MRI measures, and similar to CSF P-tau217, CSF P-tau181, CSF Aβ42/40, and tau-PET. Increased plasma P-tau217 was observed already in the pre-symptomatic stages of AD. In PSEN1 mutation carriers, the increase started at age 25, about 20 years prior to estimated onset of mild cognitive impairment. Plasma P-tau217 correlated with cerebral tau tangle densities in subjects with neuritic plaques. It predicted abnormal tau-PET scans significantly better than plasma P-tau181, plasma neurofilament light, CSF P-tau181 and CSF Aβ42/Aβ40, and similar to CSF P-tau217.

—————————————————————-

早期教育质量和后期痴呆风险

对于一项研究,研究人员将国家级行政学校质量的指标作为认知下降和痴呆症的预测因素,在以后的生活/性别跨越种族/民族的生命中的痴呆症风险。参与者包括近2,500名男女,在美国上小学出席了21年的美国。调整年龄后,童年社会经济地位和童年住宅状态,发现早期的早期教育质量与所有群体中的语言表现相关,黑人女性的内存表现水平以及记忆中的内存绩效水平相关。非西班牙裔男女和妇女和黑人女性。高等教育质量与非西班牙裔女性和黑人男女的痴呆症风险较低,但在会计协变者之后与非西班牙裔男子的痴呆症风险无关。当模型包括多年的教育时,学校质量对痴呆症风险的影响以及记忆和语言表现的水平和变化,对黑人来说完全衰减,并部分减弱非西班牙裔男女和妇女和黑人女性。“这些调查结果提供了证据表明后期生命脑健康受早期国家教育政策的影响,”写作作者“。

—————————————————————-


睡眠过少或过多都会增加患病风险

随着研究表明,睡眠障碍是普遍的,睡眠障碍的普遍性,睡眠健康与脑卫生的复杂联系,调查人员评估了自我报告的睡眠性状,夜间睡眠,白天嗜睡,睡眠呼吸暂停诊断,打鼾和小睡—among more than 500,000 individuals who were free from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) at baseline and follow for up to 12 years. When compared with those who slept an average of 6-9 hours per night, those who slept more than 9 hours had a higher risk of AD (hazard ratio [HR], 2.05) during a mean follow-up of 6.4 years. Sleep apnea (HR, 2.05) and daytime sleepiness (HR, 1.56) also raised the risk for AD significantly, with both remaining predictive of AD after controlling for sleep duration. However, no associations were observed between snoring and AD risk or between napping and AD risk. Among the 932 participants who developed AD during follow-up, the average time to diagnosis was more than 6 years, a possibly “significant window of time to intervene,” said the lead author of the study.

—————————————————————-

振奋人心的血浆交换结果

几十年来,血浆置换治疗已被用于治疗各种神经、免疫和代谢疾病,治疗方法包括血浆置换,即将血浆从血细胞中分离并去除有毒物质。血浆中的白蛋白(与血浆淀粉样蛋白结合)被从健康捐献者血浆中提取的新鲜白蛋白所取代。研究人员推测,通过将白蛋白和淀粉样蛋白一起移除,并定期用新的白蛋白替换,他们可能能够从脑脊液中移除淀粉样蛋白,最终移除大脑。为了验证这个假设,他们随机选择了55-85岁可能患有AD痴呆的男性和女性进行假治疗,或三剂白蛋白和静脉注射免疫球蛋白替代(去除的替换量相同,去除的替换量一半,只替换白蛋白)。在6周内,参与者每周接受2.5-3升血浆置换或常规血浆置换治疗,然后每月12个月,低容量(700-800毫升)血浆置换或假治疗。三个积极治疗组之间没有明显差异,阿尔茨海默病合作学习活动的日常生活范围从基线显示低52%下降到14个月的等离子体exchange-treated集团与虚假的组相比,阿尔茨海默氏症评估Scale-Cognitive内部氧化物显示低66%下降。